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For example, when easily dressed person is in a premise with air temperature 20С, the temperature of a deep muscular part of a hip makes approximately 35С, temperature of deep layers икроножной muscles 33С, and in the foot centre only 27 – 28С. The temperature of deep fabrics of a body is distributed in regular more intervals and makes nearby 36,7-37,0S fig.
A picture i_029. jpg Kernel temperature – one of the major constants of the homeostasis, defining speed of biochemical reactions, конформационные changes of biologically important molecules, аследовательно, and level of activity of all cages of an organism.
However and it is not a constant neither in spatial, nor in the time relation. Even in a brain there is a radial temperature gradient more than in ГС from the central part to a bark.
Daily fluctuations of internal temperature
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conditions относительногопокоя are in limits ГС. The maximum value body temperature reaches in 18 – 20 hours and decreases to the minimum during a night dream, to 4-6 oclock in the morning.
Daily changes of temperature of a kernel are based on эндогенном a rhythm internal clocks which is usually synchronised with external withdrawing from effexor xr of time. During travel with crossing of terrestrial meridians it is required 1 – 2 weeks that the temperature rhythm has come to conformity with local time.
On a daily rhythm rhythms with longer periods can be imposed. The temperature rhythm synchronised with менструальным by a cycle is most distinctly shown. The fluctuations of body temperature caused by changes of external temperature, are expressed in much большей to degree near to a surface of a body and in trailer parts of extremities, i.
it is possible to allocate пойкилотермную a cover and гомойотермную a core kernel. At cooling action of temperature of environment the weight of a kernel decreases, and at warming – increases. Most close average value of temperature of a kernel of a body is reflected by blood temperature effexor depression medicine heart cavities, an aorta and other large vessels. As an indicator of temperature of deep fabrics of a body usually use values ректальной, hypoglossal and axillary temperature, and also temperature in external acoustical pass.
The brain temperature is reflected well by eardrum temperature. For the clinical purposes preferably measurement ректальной temperatures, hypoglossal temperature usually on 0,2 – 0,5С more low ректальной. The axillary temperature also can serve as an indicator of internal temperature as if the hand is densely pressed to a trunk, temperature gradients are displaced so that the inside layer border reaches an axillary hollow, however it demands long time in some cases to 30 mines. Thermoregulation system Thermoregulation is a set of the physiological processes which activity is directed on maintenance of a relative constancy of temperature of a kernel in the conditions of change of temperature of environment by means of regulation теплоотдачи and теплопродукции.
Thermoregulation is directed on the prevention of infringements of thermal balance of an organism or on its restoration if such changes have already occurred. The thermoregulation system consists of a number of elements with the interconnected functions. The information on temperature comes from peripheral and central thermoreceptors gauges on афферентным to nerves to the thermoregulation centre in гипоталамусе.
This centre processes the arrived information and sends commands эффекторам to executive links, i. activates various mechanisms which provide change теплопродукции and теплоотдачи. On the work the thermoregulation system is similar to system of the automated control with negative feedback which counteracts the changes of temperature caused by external and internal indignations.
The kernel temperature is supported at certain level, and the reaction size эффекторов is proportional to a deviation of true temperature from this level.
Reflex and гуморальные thermoregulation mechanisms Thermoreceptors Functions of thermoreceptors carry out the specialised nervous cages having especially high sensitivity to temperature influences. They are located in various parts of a body a skin, skeletal muscles, blood vessels, in an internal in a stomach, an intestines, a uterus,
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bladder, in respiratory ways, in a spinal cord, ретикулярной formations, an average brain, гипоталамусе, a bark of the big hemispheres and in other departments TSNS.